Tuesday, December 05, 2017

Monday, November 27, 2017

Tuesday, November 07, 2017

Readers' Advisory Resources (some may be somewhat obscure)

  1. Joseph Gold, Read for Your Life
  2. Joseph Gold, The Story Species
  3. As Ross, McKechnie, and Rothbauer observe, “Library staff, in particular, have a gut feeling that reading is a Good Thing and that libraries should play—and do play—a vital role in promoting it. But library staff members often find it hard to explain why.” Catherine Sheldrick Ross, Lynne E. F. McKechnie, and Paulette M. Rothbauer, Reading Matters: What the Research Reveals About Reading, Libraries, and Community (Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited, 2006), ix.
  4. Begum, “Readers’ Advisory and Underestimated Roles.”
  5. Beard and Thi-Beard, “Rethinking the Book.”
  6. Catherine Sheldrick Ross, Lynne E. F. McKechnie, and Paulette M. Rothbauer, Reading Matters: What the Research Reveals About Reading, Libraries, and Community (Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited, 2006), ix.
  7. Orr, Crash Course in Readers’ Advisory.
  8. Bill Crowley, “‘Taught at the University on a Higher Plane Than Elsewhere’: The Graduate Education of Readers’ Advisors,” in The Readers’ Advisor’s Companion, edited by Kenneth D. Shearer and Robert Bergin (Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 2001), 27–58.
  9. Crowley, “Time to Rethink Readers’ Advisory Education?”
  10. Dali, “Readers’ Advisory,” 376.
  11. Moyer, “Learning From Leisure Reading.”
  12. Keren Dali, “How We Missed the Boat: Reading Scholarship and the Field of LIS,” New Library World 116, no. 9/10 (2015): 480.
  13. Orr, Crash Course in Readers’ Advisory.
  14. David Wright, “Readers’ Advisory Interview,” in Research-Based Readers’ Advisory, edited by Jessica E. Moyer (Chicago: ALA Editions, 2008), 154–71.
  15. Wayne A. Wiegand, “Missing the Real Story: Where Library and Information Science Fails the Library Profession,” in The Readers’ Advisor’s Companion, editd by Kenneth D. Shearer and Robert Bergin (Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 2001): 7–14.
  16. Connie Van Fleet, “Education for Readers’ Advisory Service in Library and Information Science Programs: Challenges and Opportunities,” Reference & User Services Quarterly 47, no. 3 (2008): 224–29.
  17. Orr, “Dynamics of Reader’s Advisory Education.”
  18. Jessica E. Moyer, “Learning From Leisure Reading: A Study of Adult Public Library Patrons,” Reference & User Services Quarterly 46, no. 4 (2007): 66–79.
  19. Dali, “Hearing Stories, Not Keywords.”
  20. Jessica E. Moyer and Terry L. Weech, “The Education of Public Librarians to Serve Leisure Readers in the United States, Canada and Europe,” New Library World 106, no. 1/2 (2005): 67–79.
  21. Barry Trott makes this case in “Building on a Firm Foundation”: “The 1980s saw three major events that re-established the value of working with readers: the publication of the first edition of Genreflecting under the editorship of Betty Rosenberg (1982); the establishment of the Chicago-area Adult Reading Roundtable (ARRT) (1984); and the publication of the first edition of Readers’ Advisory Service in the Public Library by Joyce Saricks and Nancy Brown (1989)” (Reference and User Services Quarterly 48, no. 2 (2008): 132–35).
  22. Cindy Orr, “Dynamics of Reader’s Advisory Education.”
  23. Duncan Smith, email message to author, March 23, 2015.
  24. Neil Hollands and Jessica E. Moyer, “The Future of Readers’ Advisory,” in Research-Based Readers’ Advisory, edited by Jessica E. Moyer (Chicago: ALA Editions, 2008), 242–60.
  26. Ackroyd, Peter. 1001 Books You Must Read Before You Die.  Riverdale, NJ: Universe, 2006.
  27. Adamson, Lynda G. American Historical Fiction: An Annotated Guide to Novels for Adults and Young Adults.  Phoenix: Oryx, 1998.
  28. Adamson, Lynda G. World Historical Fiction: An Annotated Guide to Novels for Adults and Young Adults.  Phoenix: Oryx, 1998.
  29. Adamson, Lynda G.  Thematic Guide to Popular Nonfiction.  Westport, CT:  Greenwood, 2006.
  30. Ahlvers, Alicia.  “Older Adults and Readers’ Advisory.”  Reference & User Services Quarterly 45(4) (Summer 2006): 305-312.
  31. Alpert, Abby.  “Incorporating Nonfiction into Readers’ Advisory Services.”  Reference & User Services Quarterly, 46(1) (Fall 2006): 25-32.
  32. Alsop, Derek., and Chris Walsh.  The Practice of Reading: Interpreting the Novel.  New York: St, Martin’s Press, 1999.
  33. Altner, Patricia. Vampire Readings: an Annotated Bibliography. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1998. 
  34. Arozena, Steven. Best Books for Public Libraries: the 10,000 Top Fiction and Nonfiction Titles (1965-1991). New York: Bowker, 1992. 
  35. Aue, Pamela Willwerth and Henry Carrigan.  What Inspirational Literature Do I Read Next?  Detroit: Gale, 2000.
  36. Balcom, Ted., ed. Serving Readers. Fort Atkinson, WI: Highsmith, 1997. 
  37. Balcom, Ted.  Book Discussions for Adults: A Leader’s Guide.  Chicago, ALA, 1992.
  38. Bailey, Dale.  American Nightmares: The Haunted House Formula in American Popular Fiction.  Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1999.
  39. Baker, Sharon L.  Responsive Public Library Collection:  How to Develop and Market A Winning Collection.  2nd ed.  Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited, 2002.
  40. Barbuto, Domenica M., and Martha Kreisel.  Guide to Civil War Books: An Annotated Selection of Modern Works on the War Between the States.  Chicago, ALA, 1995.
  41. Barron, Neil., ed.  Anatomy of Wonder: A Critical Guide to Science Fiction.  5th ed.  New York:  Bowker, 2004.
  42. Barron, Neil., ed.  Fantasy and Horror: A Critical and Historical Guide to Literature, Illustration, Film, TV, Radio, and the Internet.  Lanham, MD: Scarecrow, 1999.
  43. Barron, Neil., ed.  Horror Literature: A Reader’s Guide.  New York: Garland, 1990.
  44. Barron, Neil et al., eds.  What Do I Read Next?  A Reader’s Guide to Current Genre Fiction.  Detroit: Gale, 1990-
  45. Barron, Neil., ed.  What Historical Fiction Do I Read Next?  2nd ed.  Detroit: Gale, 1999.
  46. Barton, Wayne.  What Western Do I Read Next?  2nd ed.  Detroit: Gale, 1999.
  47. Beard, David and Kate Vo Thi-Beard.  “Rethinking the Book: New Theories for Readers’ Advisory.”  Reference & User Services Quarterly  47(4) (Summer 2008): 331-335.
  48. Behler, Anne.  “Getting Started with Graphic Novels: A Guide for the Beginner.” Reference & User Services Quarterly 46(2) (Winter 2006): 16-21.
  49. Benjamin, Franklin V.  Dictionary of American Literary Characters.  2nd ed. 2 vols.  New York:  Facts on File, 2002.
  50. Birkerts, Sven.  The Gutenberg Elergies:  The Fate of Reading in an Electronic Age.  Boston: Faber, 1994.
  51. Bleiler, Richard.  Reference Guide to Mystery and Detective Fiction.  Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 1999.
  52. Bloom, Clive., ed.  Gothic Horror: a Reader's Guide From Poe to King and Beyond. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998. 
  53. Bontly, Susan W., and Carol J. Sheridan.  Enchanted Journeys Beyond the Imagination: An Annotated Bibliography of Fantasy, Futuristic, Supernatural and Time Travel Romance. 3 vols.  Beavercreek, OH: Blue Diamond Publications, 1998.
  54. Booth, Heather.  Serving Teens Through Readers’ Advisory.  Chicago: ALA, 2007.
  55. Bosman, Ellen., and John P. Bradford. Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgendered Literature: a Genre Guide. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited, 2008.
  56. Bouricius, Ann. The Romance Readers' Advisory: the Librarian's Guide to Love in the Stacks. Chicago: ALA, 2000. 
  57. Brackett, Virginia.  Classic Love and Romance Literature: An Encyclopedia of Works, Characters, Authors and Themes.  Santa Barbara, CA: ABO-CLIO, 1999.
  58. Breen, Jon L.  Novel Verdicts: A Guide to Courtroom Fiction.  2nd ed.  Lanham, MD: Scarecrow, 2000.
  59. Bridges, Karl. 100 Great American Novels: You've (Probably) Never Read. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited, 2007.
  60. Buck, Claire., ed. The Bloombury Guide to Women's Literature. New York: Prentice Hall, 1992. 
  61. Buker, Derek M. The Science Fiction and Fantasy Readers' Advisory: the Librarian's Guide to Cyborgs, Aliens, and Sorcerers. Chicago: ALA, 2002. 
  62. Burgess, Michael., and Jill H. Vassilakos. Murder in Retrospect: a Selective Guide to Historical Mystery Fiction. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited, 2005. 
  63. Burgin, Robert., ed. Nonfiction Readers' Advisory. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited, 2004.  
  64. Burke, Susan K. and Molly Strothmann. “Adult Readers’ Advisory Services through Public Library Websites,” Reference & User Services Quarterly 55, no. 2 (2015): 141.
  65. Burns, Grant. Sports Pages: a Critical Bibliography of Twentieth Century American Novels and Stories Featuring Baseball, Basketball, Football and Other Athletic Pursuits. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1987. 
  66. Burt, Daniel S.  What Historical Novel Do I Read Next?  2 vols.  Detroit: Gale, 1997, 2003.
  67. Burt, Daniel S., Don D'Ammassa, Natalie Danford, Stefan Dziemianowicz,  and Jim Huang. What Do I Read Next?  a Reader's Guide to Current Genre Fiction (2007). Detroit: Gale, 2007. 
  68. Card, Orson Scott., ed. Masterpieces: the Best of Science Fiction in the Twentieth Century.  New York: Ace Books, 2004. 
  69. Castro, Rafaela G., Edith Maureen Fisher and Terry Hong.  What Do I Read Next?  Multicultural Literature.  Detroit: Gale, 1997.
  70. Catwelti, John G.  Six Gun Mystique Sequel.  Bowling Green University Press, 1999.
  71. Characters in 20th-Century Literature.  Detroit: Gale.  Book 1, 1990.  Book 2, 1995.
  72. Charles, John., and Shelley Mosley., eds.  Romance Today: An A-to-Z Guide to Contemporary American Romance Writers.  Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2006.
  73. Charles, John., Joanna Morrison, and Candace Clark. The Mystery Readers' Advisory: the Librarian's Clues to Murder and Mayhem. Chicago: ALA, 2002. 
  74. Chelton, Mary K. “Read Any Good Books Lately?  Helping Patrons Find What They Want.”  Library Journal 118(8) (May 1, 1993):  p33, 5p.
  75. Chelton, M.K. “Readers’ Advisory 101.”  Library Journal 128 (18) (November 1, 2003): 38-9.
  76. Chelton, Mary K.  “When Oprah Meets E-mail.”  Reference & User Services Quarterly  41(1) (Fall 2001): 31-36.
  77. Chelton, Mary K.  “What We Know and Don’t Know About Reading, Readers, and Readers’ Advisory Service.”  Public Libraries 38 (Jan/Feb 1999): 42-47.
  78. Chelton, Mary K.  “Merchandising and Display Tips.”  NoveList, 2004. 
  79. Clemens, Valdine.  Return of the Repressed: Gothic Horror from the Castle of Otranto to Alien. State University of New York Press, 1999.
  80. Clute, John., and John Grant., eds.  Encyclopedia of Fantasy. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1997.
  81. Clute, John., and Peter Nicholls. Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1993.
  82. Cole, Robert. The Call of Stories:  Teaching and the Moral Imagination. Boston: Houghton, 1989. 
  83. Contemporary Novelists.  7th ed.  Detroit: St. James, 2000.
  84. Contemporary Southern Writers.  Detroit: St. James, 1998.
  85. Cords, Sarah Statz.  The Real Story: a Guide to Nonfiction Reading Interests.  Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited, 2006. 
  86. Cords, Sarah Statz.  The Inside Scoop: a Guide to Nonfiction Investigative Writing, Exposes, and Essays. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited, 2009. 
  87. Cox, J. Randolph.  Dime Novel Companion: A Source Book.  Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2000.
  88. Crowley, Bill. “Differing Mental Models and the Futures of Libraries, Librarians, and Readers’ Advisory,” Reference & User Services Quarterly 55, no. 2 (2015): 94.
  89. Crowley, Bill.  “ Rediscovering the History of Readers Advisory Service.”  Public Libraries 44 (1) (2005): 37-41.
  90. Crowley, Bill. “Time to Rethink Readers’ Advisory Education?” Public Libraries 5, no. 4 (2014): 37–43.
  91. Cyr, Ann-Marie and Kelly M. Gillespie.  Something to Talk About:  Creative Booktalking for Adults.  Scarecrow, 2006.
  92. Dali, Keren. “Readers’ Advisory: Can We Take It to the Next Level?” Library Review 64, no. 4/5 (2015).
  93.  Dali, Keren. “Hearing Stories, Not Keywords: Teach Contextual Readers’ Advisory,” Reference Services Review 4, no. 3 (2013): 474–502.
  94. D'ammassa, Don. Encyclopedia of Science Fiction.  New York: Facts on File, 2005.
  95. Davidson, Cathy N., and Linda Wagner. The Oxford Companion to Women's Writing in the United States. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. 
  96. Dawson, Alma., and Connie Van Fleet., eds. African American Literature: A Guide to Reading Interests. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited, 2004.  
  97. Dawson, Alma and Connie Van Fleet, “The Future of Readers’ Advisory in a Multicultural Society,” in The Readers’ Advisor’s Companion, edited by Kenneth D. Shearer and Robert Bergin (Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 2001), 247–38.
  98. Delong, Janice A., and Rachel E. Schwedt.  Contemporary Christian Authors: Lives and Works.  Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 2000.
  99. Derose, David J. Vietnam War Literature: an Annotated Bibliography of Imaginative Works About Americans Fighting in Vietnam. 3rd ed. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1996. 
  100. Dilevko, Juris., and Candice F.C. Magowan.  Readers’ Advisory Service in North American Public Libraries, 1870-2005.  Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, 2007.
  101. Dorris, Michael., and Emilie Buchwalk, eds.  The Most Wonderful Books: Writers On Discovering the Pleasure of Reading. Minneapolis: MN: Milkweed Editions, 1999.
  102. Drew, Bernard A. Action Series and Sequels: a Bibliography of Espionage, Vigilante and Soldier-of-Fortune Novels. New York: Garland, 1988. 
  103. Drew, Bernard A. Western Series and Sequels. 2nd ed. New York: Garland, 1993. 
  104. Drew, Bernard A.  100 Most Popular Genre Fiction Authors: Biographical Sketches and Bibliographies.  Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited, 2005.
  105. Drew, Bernard A.  100 Most Popular African American Authors: Biographical Sketches and Bibliographies.  Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited, 2006.
  106. Drew, Bernard A.  100 Most Popular Thriller and Suspense Authors: Biographical Sketches and Bibliographies.  Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited, 2009.
  107.  Katie Dunneback, “E-books and Readers’ Advisory,” Reference & User Services Quarterly 50, no. 4 (2011): 325–29.
  108. Dwyer, Jim. Earth Works: Recommended Fiction and Nonfiction About Nature and the Environment for Adults and Young Adults. New York: Neal-Schuman, 1996. 
  109. Elkin, Judith, Briony Train, and Debbie Denhem. Reading and Reader Development: the Pleasure of Reading. New York: Neal-Schuman, 2003.
  110. Elliott, Julie.  “Academic Libraries and Extracurricular Reading Promotion.”  Reference & User Services Quarterly 46(3) (Spring 2007): 34-43.
  111. Ephron, Hallie.  1001 Books for Every Mood: A Bibliophile’s Guide to Unwinding, Misbehaving, Forgiving, Celebrating, Commiserating.  Adams Media, 2008.
  112. Fadiman, Anne. Ex-Libris: Confessions of a Common Reader. New York: Farrar, Strauss & Giroux, 1998. 
  113. Fichtelberg, Susan. Encountering Enchantment: a Guide to Speculative Fiction for Teens. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited, 2006. 
  114. Fiction Catalog 15th ed.  New York:  H.W. Wilson, 2006.
  115. Fineman, Marcia. Talking About Books: a Step-by-Step Guide for Participating in a Book Discussion. Rockville, MD: Talking About Books, 1997. 
  116. Fister, Barbara.  “Reading as a Contact Sport.” Reference & User Services Quarterly 44(4) (Summer 2005): 303-309.
  117. Frolund, Tina. Genrefied Classics: a Guide to Reading Interests in Classic Literature. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited, 2006. 
  118. Gannon, Michael B. Blood, Bedlam, Bullets, and Badguys: a Reader's Guide to Adventure/Suspense Fiction. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited, 2004. 
  119. George, J. McGraw., and S. Nagle. “Readers’ Advisory Services and Training in the North Star State.”  Public Libraries 44(1) (2005): 29-32.
  120. Gerard, Philip.  Creative Nonfiction: Researching and Crafting Stories of Real Life.  Cincinnati, OH: Story Press, 1996.
  121. Gorman, Ed., Martin H. Greenberg, and Larry Segriff., eds. The Fine Art of Murder: the Mystery Reader's Indispensable Companion. New York: Carroll & Graf, 1993. 
  122. Gosselin, Adrienne Johnson., ed.  Multicultural Detective Fiction:  Murder From the “Other” Side.  New York: Garland, 1998.
  123. Green, Joseph., and Jim Finch. Sleuths, Sidekicks and Stooges: an Annotated Bibliography of Detectives, Their Assistants, and Their Rivals in Crime, Mystery and Adventure Fiction, 1795-1995. Brookfield, VT: Ashgate, 1997. 
  124. Greenwood, Monique., Lynda Johnson, and Tracy Mitchell-Brown.  Go On Girl!  Book Club Guide for Reading Groups.   New York: Hyperion, 1999.
  125. Heaphy, Maura. Science Fiction Authors: a Research Guide. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited, 2008. 
  126. Heising, Willetta L.  Detecting Men: A Reader’s Guide and Checklist for Mystery Series Written by Men.  Dearborn, MI: Purple Moon Press, 1998.
  127. Heising, Willetta L. 3rd ed.  Detecting Women: A Reader’s Guide and Checklist for Mystery Series Written by Women.  Dearborn, MI: Purple Moon Press, 1999.
  128. Henderson, Leslie., ed.  Twentieth-Century Crime and Mystery Writers. 3rd ed.  Detroit:  St. James, 1991.
  129. Herald, Diana Tixier. Genreflecting: a Guide to Popular Reading Interests. ed. Wayne A. Wiegand. 6th ed. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 2005.
  130. Herald, Diana Tixier. Teen Genreflecting: a Guide to Reading Interests. 2nd ed.. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 2003.
  131. Herald, Diana Tixier., and Bonnie Kunzel. Fluent in Fantasy: the Next Generation. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited, 2007. 
  132. Herald, Diana Tixier., and Bonnie Kunzel. Strictly Science Fiction: a Guide to Reading Interests. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 2002.
  133. Herbert, Rosemary., ed.  Oxford Companion to Crime and Mystery Writing.  New York:  Oxford University Press, 1999.
  134. Hermes, Virginia, Mary Anne Hile and Johnetta L. Frisble.  “Reviving Literary Discussion:  Book Club to Go Kits.”  Reference & User Services Quarterly  48(1) (Fall 2008):30-34.
  135. Heyne, Douglas.  “Where Fiction Meets Nonfiction: Mapping a Rough Terrain.”  Narrative 9: (2001) 322-33, 343-45.
  136. Hilyard, Nann B.  “ Practical Perspectives on Readers Advisory.”  Public Libraries 44(1) (2005): 15-20.
  137. Hoffert, B. “Taking Back Readers’ Advisory.”  Library Journal 128(14) (September 1, 2004): 44-47.
  138. Hollands, Neil.  “Improving the Model for Interactive Readers’ Advisory Service.”  Reference & User Services Quarterly  45(3) (Spring 2006): 205-212.
  139. Hollands, Neil and Barry Trott. Read on...Fantasy Fiction: Reading Lists for Every Taste. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited, 2007. 
  140. Hooper, Brad.  Read on...Historical Fiction: Reading Lists for Every Taste. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited, 2006.
  141. Hooper, Brad. The Short Story Readers' Advisory: a Guide to the Best. Chicago: ALA, 2000.
  142. House,  Kelly. “Your Own Personal Librarian: Multnomah County Library Allows Patrons to Pick Professional Book Advisors Online,” Oregon Live, 2014, www.oregonlive.com/portland/index.ssf/2014/04/your_own_personal_librarian_mu.html.
  143.  Hubin, Allen. J.  Crime Fiction II, 1749-1990, A Comprehensive Bibliography. 2 vols.  New York: Garland, 1994.
  144. Huggins, Melanie.  “Librarians letting go of Readers' Advisory May Just Be the Thing that Saves It.”  NoveList, September 17, 2008.  Persistent Link:
  145. Husband, Janet G.  Sequels: an Annotated Guide to Novels in a Series. 4th ed. Chicago: ALA, 2009.
  146. Jacob, Merle., and Hope Apple.  To Be Continued: An Annotated Guide to Sequels.  2nd ed.  Phoenix: Oryx, 2000.
  147. Jaegly, Peggy.  Romantic Hearts: A Personal Reference for Romance Readers.  3rd ed.  Scarecrow, 1997.
  148. Jacobsohn, Rachel W.  The Reading Group Handbook: Everything You Need to Know to Start Your Own Book Club.  rev. ed.  New York: Hyperion, 1998.
  149. Jason, Philip K., and Mark A. Graves.  Encyclopedia of American War Literature.  Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2000.
  150. John, Lauren Zina. Running Book Discussion Groups: a How-to-Do-It Manual for Librarians. New York: Neal-Schuman, 2006. 
  151. Johnson, Roberta.  “The Global Conversation:  Readers’ Advisory on the Web.”  Booklist  97(9/10) (January 1 & 15, 2001): 912-913
  152. Johnson, Sarah L. Historical Fiction:  a Guide to the Genre. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited, 2005. 
  153. Johnson, Sarah L. Historical Fiction II:  a Guide to the Genre. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited, 2009. 
  154. Kastner, Alison. Multnomah County Library, “My Librarian: Personalization and the Future of Reader’s Services,” 2015, https://prezi.com/py7wucy1zs47/my-librarian-personalization-and-the-future-of-readers-ser.
  155. Katz, Bill, ed. Readers, Reading and Librarians. New York: Haworth, 2001.
  156. Kramer, John E.  Academe in Mystery and Detective Fiction:  An Annotated Bibliography.  Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 2000.
  157. Krashen, Stephen.  The Power of Reading: Insights from the Research. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 1993.
  158. Kunzel, Bonnie and Suzanne Manczuk.  First Contact: A Reader’s Selection of  Science Fiction and Fantasy.  Scarecrow, 2001. 
  159. Kuzyk, Raya.  “A Reader at Every Shelf.”  Library Journal (February 15, 2006): 32-35.
  160. Lachman, Marvin. A Reader's Guide to the American Novel of Detection. New York: G.K. Hall, 1993. 
  161. Landrum, Larry.  American Mystery and Detective Novels: A Reference Guide. Greenwood Press, 1999.
  162. Langemack, Chapple. The Booktalker's Bible:  How to Talk About the Books You Love to Any Audience. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited, 2003.
  163. Lehman, Daniel.  Matters of Fact: Reading Nonfiction Over the Edge.  Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1997.
  164. Lesher, Linda Parent.  Best Novels of the Nineties: A Reader’s Guide.  New York: McFarland, 1999. 
  165.  Library Journal, “Readers’ Advisory Services in Public Libraries: Responses from 694 Public Libraries Surveyed in November 2013,” Library Journal, 2013, http://lj.libraryjournal.com/downloads/2013-readers-advisory-services-in-public-libraries.
  166. Long, Jeffrey E. Remembered Childhoods: a Guide to Autobiography and Memoirs of Childhood and Youth. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited, 2007. 
  167. Mackler, Tasha. Murder...by Category: a Subject Guide to Mystery Fiction. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1991. 
  168. McCook, Kathleen De La Pena., and Gary O. Rolstad, eds. Developing Readers' Advisory Services: Concepts and Commitments. New York: Neal-Schuman, 1993. 
  169. McCormick, Donald., and Katy Fletcher. Spy Fiction: a Connoisseurs Guide. New York: Facts on File, 1990.
  170. McCracken, Scott.  PULP: Reading Popular Fiction in America.  Manchester University Press, 1998. 
  171. May, Anne K., Elizabeth Olesh, Anne Weinlich Miltenberg, and Catherine Patricia Lackner, “A Look at Readers’ Advisory Services,” Library Journal 125, no. 15 (2000): 40-43.
  172. Mediavilla, Cindy.  Arthurian Fiction:  An Annotated Bibliography.  Metuchen, NJ:  Scarecrow, 1999.
  173. Mediatore Stover, Kaite. “Working Without a Net: Readers’ Advisory in the Small Public Library,” Reference & User Services Quarterly 45, no. 2 (2005): 122–25.
  174. Mediatore, Kaite.  “Reading with Your Ears: Readers’ Advisory and Audio Books.”   Reference & User Services Quarterly 42(4) (Summer 2003): 318-323.
  175. Mort, John.  Christian Fiction: A Guide to the Genre.  Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 2002.
  176. Mort, John.  Read the High Country: a Guide to Western Books and Films. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 2006. 
  177. Moyer, Jessica E.   "Adult Fiction Reading: a Literature Review of Readers' Advisory Services, Adult Fiction Librarianship, and Fiction Readers." Reference & User Services Quarterly 44 (Spring 2005):  220-231.
  178. Moyer, Jessica E.  “Learning from Leisure Reading: A Study of Adult Public Library Patrons.”  Reference & User Services Quarterly 46(4) (Summer 2007): 66-79.
  179. Moyer, Jessica E.  Research-Based Readers' Advisory. Chicago: ALA, 2008. 
  180. Murphy, Bruce.  Encyclopedia of Murder and Mystery.  New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1999.
  181. Mussell, Kay., and Johanna Tunon., eds.  North American Romance Writers. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1999.
  182. Nell, Victor. Lost in a Book: the Psychology of Reading for Pleasure. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998. 
  183. Nelson, Emmanuel S., ed.  Contemporary African American Novelists: A Bibliographical Critical Sourcebook.  Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1999.
  184. Nelson, Sara.  So Many Books, So Little time: A Year of Passionate Reading. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 2003.
  185. Nichols, Victoria., and Susan Thompson. Silk Stalking: More Women Write of Murder. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 2000. 
  186. Niebuhr, Gary Warren. Make Mine a Mystery: a Reader's Guide to Mystery and Detective Fiction. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited, 2003. 
  187. Niebuhr, Gary Warren. Caught Up in Crime: a Reader's Guide to Crime Fiction and Nonfiction. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited, 2009. 
  188. Niebuhr, Gary Warren. Read "Em Their Writes: a Handbook for Mystery and Crime Fiction Book Discussions. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited, 2006. 
  189. Niebuhr, Gary Warren. Reader's Guide to the Private Eye Novel. New York: G.K. Hall, 1993. 
  190. Nottingham, Janet.  “Doing It Right: A Readers’ Advisory Program.”  Reference & User Services Quarterly 41(4) (Summer 2002): 335-339.
  191. Oleksiw, Susan. A Reader's Guide to the Classic British Mystery. New York: G.K. Hall, 1988.  
  192. Orr, Cindy. “Dynamics of Reader’s Advisory Education: How Far Can We Go?” Readers’ Advisor News, 2009, http://readersadvisoronline.com/ranews/sep2009/orr.html.
  193. Keren Dali, “Readers’ Advisory,” 374.
  194. Overmier, Judith and Rhonda Harris Taylor, eds.  Managing the Mystery Collection: From Creation to Consumption.  Haworth Press 2006.
  195. Pawuk, Michael. Graphic Novels: a Genre Guide to Comic Books, Manga, and More. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited, 2006.
  196. Pearl, Nancy.  Book Lust: Recommended Reading for Every Mood, Moment and Reason.  Seattle, WA: Sasquatch Books, 2003.
  197. Pearl, Nancy.  More Book Lust: Recommended Reading for Every Mood, Moment and Reason.  Seattle, WA: Sasquatch Books, 2005
  198. Pearl, Nancy., Martha Knappe, and Chris Higashi.   Now Read This: a Guide to Mainstream Fiction, 1978-1998. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 1999. 
  199. Pearl, Nancy. Now Read This 2: a Guide to Mainstream Fiction, 1990-2001. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 2002. 
  200. Pearlman, Mickey.  What to Read: The Essential Guide for Reading Group Members and Other Book Lovers.  Revised and updated.  New York: Harper Paperbacks, 1999.
  201. Pederson, Jay P., ed. St. James Guide to Science Fiction Writers. 4th ed. Detroit: St. James, 1995.
  202. Pringle, David., and David Collins, eds.  St. James Guide to Fantasy Writers.  Detroit: St. James, 1995.
  203. Pringle, David., ed.  St. James Guide to Horror, Ghost and Gothic Writers.  Detroit: St. James, 1997.
  204. Pringle, David. The Ultimate Guide to Science Fiction: an A-Z of Science Fiction by Title. 2nd ed. Ashgate, 1995. 
  205. Prose, Francine.  Reading Like a Writer: A Guide for People Who Love Books and for Those Who Want to Write Them.  New York: HarperPerennial, 2007.
  206. Pulliam, June Michele., and Anthony J. Fonseca. Hooked on Horror III: a Guide to Reading Interests in Horror Fiction. 3rd. ed. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited, 2009. 
  207. Pulliam, June Michele., and Anthony J. Fonseca. Read on...Horror Fiction. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited, 2006.
  208.  Pundsack, Karen. “Moving Readers’ Advisory Online,” Public Libraries Online, 2014, http://publiclibrariesonline.org/2014/09/moving-readers-advisory-online.
  209. Punter, David., ed.  A Companion to the Gothic.  Blackwell, 1999.
  210. Quinn, Sherrey.  “Reading Rewards: The Evolution of a Train the Trainer Course for Public Library Readers Advisors.”  APLIS 21(2) (June 2008): 44-55.
  211. Rabinowitz, Harold., and Rob Kaplan.  A Passion for Books.  New York: Crown, 1997.
  212. Radway, Janice A.  A Feeling for Books: The Book-of-the-Month Club, Literary Taste, and Middle-Class Desire.  Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1997. 
  213. Rainey, David. Faith Reads: a Selective Guide to Christian Nonfiction. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited, 2008. 
  214. Ramsdell, Kristin. Romance Fiction:  a Guide to the Genre. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 2008.
  215. Ramsdell, Kristin.  What Romance Do I Read Next? A Guide to Recent Romance Fiction.  2nd ed.  Detroit: Gale, 1999.
  216. Ramsdell, Kristin.  Romance Fiction: A Handbook for Readers, Writers and Librarians.  Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited, 1999.
  217. Rand, Ayn.  The Art of Fiction: A Guide for Writers and Readers.  Plume, 2000.
  218. “Recommended Readers’ Advisory Tools.”   Reference & User Services Quarterly, 43(4) (Summer 2004), 294-305.
  219. Regan,  Lee. “A Public Library Survey: Status of Reader’s Advisory Service,” RQ 12, no. 3 (1973): 227–33.
  220. Reisman, Rosemary M. Canfield., and Suzanne Booker-Canfield.  Contemporary : Southern Male Fiction Writers.  Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1998.
  221. Reisner, Rosalind. Jewish American Literature: a Guide to Reading Interests. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited, 2004. 
  222. Reynolds, Guy.  Twentieth-Century American Women’s Fiction: A Critical Introduction.  New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1999.
  223. Richards, Phillip.  Best Literature by and about Blacks.  Detroit: Gale, 2000.
  224. Rochman, Hazel.  Against Borders: Promoting Books for a Multicultural World.  Chicago, ALA, 1993.
  225. Roche, Rick.  Real Lives Revealed: A Guide to Reading Interests in Biography. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited, 2009.
  226. Ross, Catherine Sheldick.  “Finding without Seeking: What Readers Say about the Role of Pleasure Reading as a Source of Information.”  Australasian Public Libraries and Information Services 13(2) (2002): 72-80.
  227. Ross, Catherine Sheldrick., Kirsti Nilsen, and Patricia Dewdney.  Conducting the Reference Interview:  A How-to-Do-It Manual for Librarians.  New York: Neal-Schuman, 2002.
  228. Ross, Catherine Sheldrick., Lynne (E.F.) McKechnie, and Paulette M. Rothbauer.  Reading Matters: What the Research Reveals About Reading, Libraries, and Community.  Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited, 2005.
  229. Ross, Catherine Sheldrick. “Making Choices: What Readers Say about Choosing Books to Read for Pleasure.”  The Acquisitions Librarian 25 (2001): 5-21.
  230. Ross, Catherine Sheldrick., and M.K. Chelton.  “Readers’s Advisory: Matching Mood and Material.”  Library Journal  126(2) ( February 1, 2001): 52-5.
  231. Ross, Catherine Sheldrick. “Readers’ Advisory Service: New Directions,” RQ 30, no. 4 (1991): 503–18.
  232. Rubin, David., ed.  The Reading List: Contemporary Fiction.  New York: Henry Holt, 1998.
  233. Rubin, Rhea Joyce. Of a Certain Age: a Guide to Contemporary Fiction Featuring Older Adults. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 1990.  
  234. Saricks, Joyce G.  The Readers' Advisory Guide to Genre Fiction. 2nd ed. Chicago: ALA, 2009. 
  235. Saricks, Joyce G.  Readers' Advisory Service in the Public Library. 3rd ed. Chicago: ALA, 2005. 
  236. Saricks, Joyce G.  “Against the Rules.”  Booklist 102(21) (July 2006): 28.
  237. Saricks, Joyce G.  “Dead but Still Read (or They Ought to Be).”  Booklist 104(11) (February 1, 2008): 25.
  238. Saricks, Joyce G.  “Finding Time to Read.”  Booklist  101(11) (February 1, 2005): 939.
  239. Saricks, Joyce G.  “Genres on My Mind.”  Booklist 104(5) (November 1, 2007): 26.
  240. Saricks, Joyce G.  “Instant Readers’ Advisory.”  Booklist 101(5) (November 1, 2004): 463.
  241. Saricks, Joyce G.  “Joining the Conversation.” Booklist 103(11) (February 1, 2007): 30.
  242. Saricks, Joyce G.  “The Life of Leisure—“Reading” in My Spare Time.” Booklist  101(15) (April 1, 2005): 1342.
  243. Saricks, Joyce G.  “Not Just Fiction.”  Booklist 101(1) (September 1, 2004): 56.
  244. Saricks, Joyce G.  “R.A. Resolutions.”  Booklist 101(9/10) (January 1 & 15, 2005): 812.
  245. Sarick, Joyce G.  “Readers’ Advisory without a Desk.”  Booklist): 101(18) (May 15, 2005): 1635.
  246. Saricks, Joyce G.  “Reading to Escape.”  Booklist  101(7) (December 1, 2004): 635.
  247. Saricks, Joyce G.  "Reading the Future of the Public Library." The Acquisitions Librarian 25 (2001): 113-121. 
  248. Saricks, Joyce G.  “Rethinking the Readers’-Advisory Interview.”  Booklist 103(15) (April 1, 2007): 24.
  249. Saricks, Joyce G.  “Take Time for Rereading.”  Booklist  101(19/20)(June 1 & 15, 2005): 1750.
  250. Saricks, Joyce G.  “Taking on Nonfiction Readers’ Advisory.”  Booklist  101(13) (March 1, 2005): 1141.
  251. Saricks, Joyce G.  “Taking the Plunge.”  Booklist 102 (9/10) (January 1 & 15, 2006): 56.
  252. Saricks, Joyce G.  “Teaching Readers’ Advisory and the Art of Booktalking.”  Booklist 102(1) (September, 1, 2005): 61.
  253. Saricks, Joyce G.  “Thinking Outside the Genre and Dewey Boxes.” Booklist 102(13) (March 1, 2006): 64.
  254. Saricks, Joyce G.  “Vacation Reading.”  Booklist 101(3) (October 1, 2004): 309.
  255. Saricks, Joyce G.  “What I like Best about Readers’ Advisory.”  Booklist 102 (11) (February 1, 2006): 27.
  256. Saricks, Joyce G.  “What Makes a Good Book.”  Booklist 103(13) (March 1, 2007): 60.
  257. Saricks, Joyce G.  “Unlocking the Mystery of Mysteries.”  Booklist 105(17) (May 1, 2009): 21.
  258. Saricks, Joyce G.  “Readers’ Advisory—Flash in the Pan or Here to Stay?”  Booklist 104 (21)(July 2008): 12.
  259. Saricks, Joyce G.  “Whole-Library Readers’ Advisory.”  Booklist 104(1) (September 1, 2007): 51.
  260. Sedo, DeNel Rehberg. “Predications of Life after Oprah: A Glimpse at the Power of Book Club Readers.”  Publishing Research Quarterly 18(3) (2004): 11-22.
  261. Shearer, Kenneth D. “The Nature of the Readers’ Advisory Transaction in Adult Reading,” in Guiding the Reader to the Next Book, edited by Kenneth D. Shearer (New York: Neal-Schuman), 1–20; Cindy Orr, Crash Course in Readers’ Advisory (Santa Barbara, CA: Libraries Unlimited, 2015).
  262. Shwartz, Ronald B., ed.  For the Love of Books: 115 Celebrated Writers on Books they Love Most.  New York: Grosset/Putnam, 1999.
  263. Shearer, Kenneth D.   "The Book's Remarkable Longevity in the Face of New Communications Technologies--Past, Present and Future." The Acquisitions Librarian 25 (2001): 22-33.
  264. Shearer, Kenneth D., and Robert Burgin., eds. The Readers' Advisor's Companion. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 2001.
  265. Shearer, Kenneth D., ed.  Guiding the Reader to the Next Book.  New York: Neal-Schuman, 1996.
  266. Simkin, John E.  Whole Story: 3,000 Years of Sequels and Sequences. 2nd ed. Port Melbourne, Australia:  D.W. Thorpe, 1998.
  267. Simone, Robert.  The Immigrant Experience in American Fiction: An Annotated Bibliography.  Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1995.
  268. Simony, Maggy. The Traveler's Reading Guide:  Ready-Made Reading Lists for the Armchair Traveler. New York: Facts on File, 1992. 
  269. Slezak, Ellen. The Book Group Book: a Thoughtful Guide to Forming and Enjoying a Stimulating Book Discussion Group. 3rd ed. Chicago: Chicago Review Press, 2000. 
  270. Smith, Duncan., and Suzanne Mahmoodi.  Talking with Readers: A Workbook for Readers’ Advisory.  Ipswich, MA: EBSCO, 2000.
  271. Smith, Duncan., and Mary K. Chelton.   "Talking with Readers: a Competency Based Approach to Readers' Advisory Service." Reference & User Services Quarterly 40(2) (Winter 2000): 135-142.  
  272.  Smith, Duncan. “Talking with Readers: A Competency Based Approach to Readers’ Advisory Service,” Reference & User Services Quarterly 40, no. 2 (2000): 135–42.
  273. Smith, Myron J., and Terry White. Cloak and Dagger Fiction: an Annotated Guide to Spy Thrillers. 3rd ed. Westport. CT: Greenwood, 1995. 
  274. Smith, Sharron., and Maureen O'Connor. Canadian Fiction: a Guide to Reading Interests. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited, 2005. 
  275. Snodgrass, Mary Ellen.  Encyclopedia of Frontier Literature.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.
  276. Begum, Soheli. “Readers’ Advisory and Underestimated Roles of Escapist Reading,” Library Review 60, no. 9 (2011): 738–47.
  277. Spratford, Becky Siegel., and Tammy Hennigh Clausen. The Horror Readers' Advisory: the Librarian's Guide to Vampires, Killer Tomatoes, and Haunted Houses. Chicago: ALA, 2004.
  278. Stapleford, Brian.  A to Z of Science Fiction.  Scarecrow, 2005.
  279. Stevens, Jen., and Dorothea Salo. Fantasy Authors: a Research Guide. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited, 2008.
  280. Stilwell, Steven.  What Mystery Do I Read Next?  2nd ed.  Detroit: Gale, 1999.
  281. Stone, Nancy-Stephanie.   A Reader’s Guide to the Spy and Thriller Novel.  New York: G. K. Hall, 1997.
  282. Stover, Kaite Mediatore.   “Working without a Net: Readers’s Advisory in the Small Public Library.”  Reference & User Services Quarterly  45(2) (Winter 2005):122-125.
  283. Stover, Kaite Mediatore.   “Stalking the Wild Appeal Factor.”  Reference & User Services Quarterly 48(3) (Spring 2009):239-242.
  284. Swanson, Jean., and Dean James. Killer Books: A Reader’s Guide to Mystery and Suspense.  New York: Berkley, 1998.
  285. Swanson, Jean., and Dean James. By a Woman's Hand: a Guide to Mystery Fiction Written by Women. New York: Berkley, 1994.
  286. Thompson, Jason.  Manga: The Complete Guide.  New York: Random House, 2007.
  287. Towey, Cathleen A.  “Why RA is Important from the Director’s Point of View.”  NoveList, January 1, 2003. 
  288. Trott, Barry.   “Advising Readers Online: A Look at Internet Based Reading Recommendation Services.”  Reference & User Services Quarterly  44(3) (Summer 2005): 210-215.
  289. Trott, Barry.   “Building on a Firm Foundation: Readers’ Advisory Over the Next 25 Years.”  Reference & User Services Quarterly 48(2) (Winter 2008): 132-135.
  290. Trott, Barry. Read on...Crime Fiction: Reading Lists for Every Taste. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited, 2007.  
  291. Trott, Barry. “Reference, Readers’ Advisory, and Relevance,” The Reference Librarian 53, no. 1 (2011): 60-66.
  292. Twentieth-Century Western Writers. Detroit, MI: St. James, 1991. 
  293. Usherwood, Bob., and Jackie Toyne.  “Reading the Warning Signs: Library Book Reading Research.”  Public Library Journal 15 (4) (Winter 2000): 112-114.
  294. Usherwood, Bob., and Jackie Toyne .  “The Value and Impact of Reading Imaginative Literature.”  Journal of Librarianship and Information Science 34(1) (March 2002): 33-41.
  295. Vanderbilt II, Arthur T.  Making of a Bestseller: From Author to Reader.  McFarland, 1999.
  296. VanMeter, Vandelia.  America in Historical Fiction: A Bibliographic Guide.  Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 1997.
  297. Vassilakos-Long, Jill., and Paul Vassilakos-Long. Strange Cases: a Selective Guide to Speculative Mystery Fiction. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited, 2008.  Vasudevan, Aruna., ed.  Twentieth-Century Romance and Historican Writers. 3rd ed.  Detroit: St. James, 1994.
  298. Vnuk, Rebecca.  Women’s Fiction Authors.  Westport, CT.  Libraries Unlimited, 2009.
  299. Vnuk, Rebecca.  Read On…Women’s Fiction: Reading Lists for Every Tastes.  Westport, CT.  Libraries Unlimited, 2009.
  300. Waldren, Arthur et al., eds. 23rd eds.  Good Reading: A Guide for Serious Readers.  New York: Bowker, 1990.
  301. Walker, Barbara J.  Developing Christian Fiction Collections for Children and Adults: Selection Criteria and Core Collection.  New York: Neal-Schuman, 1998.
  302. Walker, Barbara J. The Librarian's Guide to Developing Christian Fiction for Adults. New York: Neal-Schuman, 2005.
  303. Walton, Priscilla L., and Manina Jones.  Detective Agency:  Women Rewriting the Hard-Boiled Tradition.  University of California Press, 1999.
  304. Watson, Dana.   “Time to Turn the Page: Library Education for Readers’ Advisory Services.”  Reference & User Services Quarterly 40(2) (Winter 2000): 143-44.
  305. Watson, Noelle. Twentieth-Century Science Fiction Writers. 3rd ed. Detroit: St. James, 1994. 
  306. Weber, Olga S. Good Reading: a Guide for Serious Readers. Libraries Unlimited, 1989. 
  307. Whitson, Kathy J.  Native American Literature: An Encyclopedia of Works, Characters, Authors, and Themes.  Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 1999.
  308. Winks, Robin W., ed.  Mystery and Suspense Writers:  The Literature of Crime, Detection, and Espionage.  New York: Scribner, 1998.
  309. Wright, David.  “Mark Page, Finder of Lost Books, in: The Mystery that Wasn’t There.”  Reference & User Services Quarterly  45(1) (Fall 2005): 33-38.
  310. Wyatt, Neal.  The Readers’ Advisory Guide to Nonfiction.  Chicago: ALA, 2007.
  311. Wyatt, Neal.  “2.0 For Readers:  Online Innovations Reinvent How We Use a Classic Tool-Annotations.”  Library Journal 132(18) (November 1, 2007): 30-33.
  312. Wyatt, Neal.  “An RA Big Think.”  Library Journal  132(12) (July 1, 2007): 40-43.
  313. Wyatt, Neal.  “Exploring Nonfiction.”  Library Journal 132(3) (February. 15, 2007): 32-35.
  314. Wyatt, Neal., Georgine Olson, Kristin Ramsdell, Joyce Saricks, and Lynne Welch.  “Core Collections in Genre Studies: Romance Fiction 101.” Reference & User Services Quarterly  47(2) (Winter 2007): 120-125.
  315. Wyatt, Neal. “Redefining RA: Reading Maps Remake RA: Re-create a Book’s Entire Universe Online and Transform Readers’ Advisory,” Library Journal, 2006, http://lj.libraryjournal.com/2006/11/ljarchives/lj-series-redefining-ra-reading-maps-remake-ra.
  316. Yahnke, Robert E., and Richard M. Eastman. Aging in Literature: a Reader's Guide. Chicago: ALA, 1990. 

Healing Power of Stories


Jenny Diski ONLY HUMAN a divine comedy

Possibility entered the beginning of the world, and with it, desire.

There are no mirrors in eternity.

More and more I find myself choosing visual reading, and drawing, rather than writing


The Flight of the Silvers by Daniel Price

Quote: Time is a landscape that stretches across all things. We're the ones who move across it. ... The concepts of past and future are entirely human constructs. We formulated them as navigational markers, like east and west.

The End of Your Life Book Club Reading List

Crossing to Safety by Wallace Stegner
On Chesil Beach by Ian McEwan
Appointment in Samarra by Frank O'Hara
The Savage Detectives by Roberto Belano
Man Gone Down by Michael Thomas

Douglas Coupand Future Legends

Achronogeneritropic spaces
Airport-induced identity dysphoria
ambivital consensus
Ameteoric landscape
anorthodoxical isms
The anthropocene
Attack moderates
Bell's law of telephony
Binary subjective qualities
Blank-collar workers
cartoon blindness
Catastrophic shifts
Centennial blindness
Christmas-morning feeling
Chronocanine envy
chronotropic drugs
Cloud blindness
Collapse attraction
Complex sepration
cover buzz
Crazy uncle syndrome
Crystallographic money theory
Dark-age high tech
Deharmonized sin
deromanticizing dysfunction
drinking your own spit
Dummy pronoun
Ecosystemic biology
Eternal divide
Exosomatic memory
Fate is for losers
Fictive rest
Field denial
Future of labour
General anesthetic afterlife
Goalpost aura
grim truth
Guck wonder
iddefodial storage
Indoor/outdoor voice
Inhibition spectrum
Instant reincarnation
Internal voice blindness
Interruption-driven memory
Intraffinital melancholy vs. Extraffinital melancholy
Intravincularfamilial silence
Invariant memory
karaokeal amnesia
Limbic trading - the belief that the need for stories comes from deep within the brain's limbic system--where memory and emotion percolate, and where stories are first processed before they are passed on to the left hemisphere, the home of intuition, imagination, and inspiration--and that storytelling is one limbic system's way of communicating with that of another person.
Limited pool romantic theory
Lyrical putty
Malfactory aversion
Mallproof realms
Mechanics of friends and influence
Mr. goggles
metaphor blindness
Metaphor spectrum
nanoexploitative industry
Narrative drive

Dublin bibliotherapy programs


The original purpose of this study was to answer the main research question:
How can a bibliotherapy programme be developed and effectively implemented in a Dublin public library environment?
This main question fed into a number of areas including:
How are bibliotherapy programmes currently being conducted in
Dublin’s public library services?
What role do partnerships with health professionals play in bibliotherapy programmes in public libraries?
How do these programmes impact upon the role of staff in the libraries?
What, if any, are the barriers to bibliotherapy programmes currently in
existence in Dublin’s public libraries?
What are the differences between a bibliotherapy programme in a
public library and a similar programme in a health


‘Information Eye”- the new vision of Foundation for Library Awareness (FOLA) for the Value Based education – is the successfully running exhibition project to improve the reading habits in the society of Jaffna district. There is a corner in this exhibition namely “Medicine for soul” focused on Use of information as bibliotherapic tool. (http://folalk.blogspot.com/)

This corner provides a sensitive way for a viewer to guide to understand themselves and the environment, and possibly find solutions to their problems. Information displayed here is Book for Creative Writing:  Students can create a diary for a character in the story, write a letter from one character to another write a poem to stimulate students’ thinking about themselves, Book for Art Activities:  Draw a map to illustrate story events, draw pictures of events in the story. Discussion and Role-Playing:  Students participate in a roundtable discussion about the decision of a character in the story, role-play events in the story, Books for healing by reading, Self-motivating books images.

Friday, November 03, 2017

Expressive arts white paper


Feminist poets


Move over Freud from the Guardian


Book Riot reading challenge


Poems to get you going again from the Guardian




Reading List: Subversive Women


Thursday, November 02, 2017

Furthest by Suzette Haden Elgin

No matter how inconenient or unpleasant an illusion may be, if a man has chosen t himself and held it long enough, if he hs built it up in sufficient detail and become accustomed to taking it into account upon every occasion, it will become precious to him and he will fight to maintain it in preference to even a pleasant truth. This is because it will have become one of the anchoring points of his mind, like the points which anchor the web of a spider, and to displace it will cause a shift in equilibrium for which painful compensation must be made. This is only a form of self-defense; nonetheless it inhibits growth.

Tuesday, October 31, 2017

Sunday, September 24, 2017

Read not seen

Chinese painting is based on the pictorial calligraphy strokes developed long ago and is therefore often said to be "written" rather than painted, and "read" rather than seen.

Tuesday, September 05, 2017

Neal Stephenson and Nicole Gallland The Rise and Fall of D.O.D.O.

Quote: A witch generally speaks her mind when she can get away with it, doesn't care much about what men think, and is determined to have agency over her fate, even in a time and place when such a thing was hard to come by...

Friday, August 25, 2017

Poetry Forms Index


This site includes hundreds of poetic forms with samples and outlines, and more kinds of haiku than I would have dreamed.

 Abbreviated Haiku Written in either 2 lines with syllable count 7/2 or 3 lines with syllable count 3/5/3 or 2/3/2. This is sometimes called Miku.
 Alphabet Haiku Modern haiku form created by Beatrice Evans, aka Ronnica at Allpoetry
It requires only strict 5 7 5 syllable construction
with all words beginning with the same letter.
 American Sentence poetry form An American haiku variation invented by Allen Ginsberg.
17 syllables written in a sentence. Any topic.
In a series if more than single line.
 Brazilian Haiku Rhyming haiku
x x x x A
x B x x x x B
x x x x A

 Crystalline An English Haiku analog.  Two lines of 17 syllables, 8/9 or 9/8
 Dodoitsu  It has 26 syllables: 7 in the first, second and third lines, and 5 in the last   line. (7-7-7-5)
 Haiga A Haiga is a Haiku accompanied by a picture.
 Haikuette Tristitch with 17 or fewer syllable, no verbs, each line separate entity but contributing to whole.
 Haynaku Vividly short poetry, like haikus only very different… 1 word, 2 words, 3  words and visa Vera.
Creating imagery or conclusions with only six words in all..
 Katuata Syllabic, 19 syllables or less.  Usually a tercet. 5-7-7. This can also be reduced to a 5-7-5 syllable count if desired.
emotive, not necessarily logical.
 Kimo  An Israeli version of the Haiku.  10/7/6 syllables
Kouta A Japanese poetry form of 4 lines.
Syllabic, written in lines of alternating 7-5-7-5 syllables or 7-7-7-5 syllables.
 Pixiku A three line form related to Haiku with no restrictions.
 Rhaiku Verse A poem consisting of One stanza of Rhyme,
one stanza of haiku, and one stanza of free verse.
The order of the components is up to the poet.
 Scifaiku Minimal, in the moment with human insight.
Written with a haiku frame
 Senryu A poem in 3 lines or less.
Syllabic, 17 syllables or less.
Commonly written in 3 lines but can be written in 2 lines and can be written with fewer syllables, never more.
 Tanka The tanka is defined more by content and style than syllabic prescription, still most tanka like its ancestor the waka are confined by 31 onji or syllables and broken into 5 lines of 5-7-5-7-7.
 Haiku Related form Links – Reference Ever growing list

 These are some of the forms I want to try:
 Aquarian Unrhymed.  Invented by A. Maris Mazz
Each stanza  has lines of 2-4-6-2 syllables
Any number of stanzas permitted.
 Atom Stnzaic: tercets.
Count letters: 5-7-5.
This poem linked tercets under title.
No punctuation or capitalization like haiku.
Benison A blessing in any verse form at poet’s discretion.
 Blues Stanza • stanzaic, written in any number of triplets.
• accentual verse with 4 to 6 stresses a line, or whatever. The syllable count is 12 or close enough. You can see, there is lots of room to wiggle here. The meter changes to iambic pentameter when the stanza is used in the Blues Sonnet.
• structured. L1 makes a statement, L2 repeats L1 with minor variation, often a beat or two short, and L3 responds, with a “climatic parallel” to the first 2 lines. (a culminating contrast or extension of the statement) In effect you are writing a rhyming couplet posing as a triplet.
• rhymed, rhyme scheme aaa, bbb, ccc, ddd.
 Brevette 2 Word Poem. subject (noun), verb, and object (noun), in this exact order. The verb should show an ongoing action. This is done by spacing out the letters in the verb. There are only three words in the poem.
Diminishing Hexaverse A six stanza poem where the first stanza has six line of six syllable, the next has five lines of 5 syllables, etc..
Dribble The dribble is a brief poem consisting of exactly 100 letters
 Etheree The first line is a monosyllabic word; the second line has two syllables, and so on, until the tenth line with, ultimately, ten syllables.
Fantasy A three stanza, structured, syllabic poem of 20 lines
Rhymed: abccaba deffed gghhiii
 Glosa, Glose, or Gloss A poem beginning with another poet’s single stanza, which become lines in your subsequent stanzas.
 Grook The grooks are characterized by irony, paradox, brevity, precise use of language, sophisticated rhythms and rhymes and often satiric nature.
 Hex Sonnata Meter: Iambic Trimeter
Rhyme Scheme: a/bb/aa/b c/dd/cc/d ee 
Imaginaerium abcaba deed ff  
12 syllables per line
Written as follows: Sestet/ Quatrain/Couplet

 Loonies  5 line, 13 word poem.
It is word-based with 1/5/5/1/1 words per line.
It is formulaic: the words in the final two lines must be hyphenated.
 Lune Kelly Lune,    Syllables: 5-3-5
Collom Lune,    Words:  3-5-3
Any topic, meter, rhyme, metaphor allowed.
 Magic 9 A 9 line poem
Line-length and metrics at the discretion of the poet
Rhyme pattern: abacadaba
Minute The Minute Poem is a 60 syllable verse form, one syllable for each second in a minute. The theme should be an event that is over and done   completely, as in a minute. Since the dominant line is short the effect is likely humorous, whimsical or semi-serious.
 Naani A four line poem consisting of from 20 to 25 syllables.
 Pensee syllabic count 2-4-7-8-6; line 1 is the subject; line 2 gives description
line 3, action; line 4, the setting; line 5, final thought.
 Pleiades Only one word is allowed in the title followed by a single seven-line stanza.  The first word in each line begins with the same letter as the title.
 Sonnetina Quatro 1. The form comprises of two stanzas. These are a sestet and a quatrain.
2. The sestet and quatrain may appear either way round, but the more usual design is the sestet first.
Rhyme Scheme: ababab cdcd

 And so much more! Find your own form favorites. (The names are inspiring all on their own.)
 Page down past Archives on the right hand side of the site to find
categorical links that include:

Arts in Health


Tuesday, August 22, 2017

Analysis of Shakespeare's Sonnet 77

Thy glass will show thee how thy beauties wear,
Thy dial how thy precious minutes waste;
The vacant leaves thy mind’s imprint will bear,
And of this book this learning mayst thou taste.
The wrinkles which thy glass will truly show
Of mouthed graves will give thee memory;
Thou by thy dial’s shady stealth mayst know
Time’s thievish progress to eternity.
Look, what thy memory cannot contain
Commit to these waste blanks, and thou shalt find
Those children nurs’d, deliver’d from thy brain,
To take a new acquaintance of thy mind.
These offices, so oft as thou wilt look,
Shall profit thee and much enrich thy book.

I like the phrase "mouthed graves." The suggestion seems to be that the serious thoughts we voice are reflected in our faces and when we look at ourselves, our wrinkles remind us of those sad times. Shakespeare is encouraging a kind of bibliotherapy here. Our most serious thoughts, brought about by our most trying times, are those that will most enrich our "book."

The analysis in this link, however, doesn't go into this, but is a very thorough analysis of the poem.

Monday, June 26, 2017

Combine biblio and art therapy

Use these prompts but instead of it being directly about you, or your "client," make it about a character in a story that reflects something currently of import in the life cycle.
Processing emotions seems to get easier with distance and adding fictional elements is a good way to gain perspective.

Thursday, June 01, 2017

credit FutureLearn Screenwriting

David Mamet, the playwright and filmmaker, once remarked that, “Stories happen because somebody wants something and has trouble getting it.” Let’s take a quick look at this simple format:
        The “Somebody”… gives us a character. Not just a name, but a person in a specific place, at a specific time, living a specific life.
        The “Wants Something”… gives us a goal, the ‘story question’ that will be what this film is ‘about’.
        And “Has Trouble Getting It”… gives us the conflict. It provides obstacles that the character must overcome to achieve their goal. These obstacles will ask difficult questions, and the response will come to change and define the character.

 We usually tell our story from a character’s perspective, so we consider the specific circumstances by asking questions.
What has just happened to the character?
What does that mean in relation to his/her goals?
What does he/she want to happen now?
What does he/she fear might happen?
What might stand in the way?

These last two considerations determine the ‘has trouble getting it’ of the scene and will naturally create conflict. We like this collision of goals to force the characters to face hard choices and make clear decisions that determine the direction of the story.

Screenplay Formatting Form and Style

It helps to use professional scripts as a guide, so read lots of scripts.
The BBC Writers Room offers a wide selection of sample scripts. Check often, as the list is frequently updated.

BAFTA/The British Academy of Film and Television Arts offers a wide range of resources for writers. You can access the Screenwriter’s Lecture Series, Guru Podcasts and many other services.

The Writers Guild of Great Britain and The Writers Guild of America, West offer a host of resources on their websites.

The Black List library of award-winning screenplays is a terrific resource. (Actual scripts no longer seem to be available here, but try BBC Writers' Room Script Library.

Screenplay Format
Your scripts must be submitted in proper format.

If you’re working in the UK, take a look at the The BBC Format Guide for Screenplays. The guide tells you all that you need to properly format a screenplay, written in screenplay format.

Screen Australia offers an article on creating loglines, synopses and treatments. Follow the examples in their Story Docs: And Info Guide to learn a very useful approach to presenting your ideas. (pdf)

The Academy Of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences - the folks who give us the Oscars, offers a concise guide to screenplay format Do’s and Don’ts. The site also offers downloads of scripts the won their prestigious Nicholl Fellowship.
Script Formatting Software
Trelby is free formatting program that’s worth consideration. It lacks some of the bells and whistles offered by other programs, but it’s free and won’t nag you to upgrade. In addition, it’s a program that you can download and use offline.

Monday, April 17, 2017

The Twelve Magic Changelings LOC


Alice on my bookshelf and Online

Exercise for FutureLearn free online course Literature in the Digital Age:

Can you imagine if there were only one edition of Alice? All mine but the pop-up and app are well-worn paperbacks in different shapes and sizes. All are illustrated by John Tenniel, except the facsimile (author's own illustrations), pop-up (Robert Sabuda) and app (Emmanuel Paletz).
I chose to use so many examples, because to me these are such very different reading experiences, some more obviously than others. The medium is most assuredly the message when it comes to Alice. And, I can't imagine it any other way.

 Alice's Adventures under Ground (facsimile of the Author's 1864 manuscript with additional material from the facsimile edition of 1886 with intro by Martin Gardner)
Alice in Wonderland (Norton Critical Edition)
Alice's Adventures in Wonderland & Through the Looking-Glass (New American Library Signet Classic)
The Annotated Alice (Penguin Edition)
The Philosopher's Alice's (intro and notes by Peter Heath)
Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (A Pop-up Adaptation of Lewis Carroll's Original Tale)
http://thealiceapp.com/ (Amazing interactive text, a sampling here:)

Because I can be a bit OCD about books and reading, I explored a few free online editions:
http://www.literatureproject.com/alice/ (boring, text only)
http://literature.org/authors/carroll-lewis/alices-adventures-in-wonderland/ (pdf text with Tenniel illustrations)
http://readcentral.com/book/Lewis-Carroll/Read-Alices-Adventures-in-Wonderland-Online (No illustrations but this site, strangely, lets you assess your reading time.)
http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/11?msg=welcome_stranger (This is where many sites get the text they use. Text is made available in multiple formats.)
https://archive.org/details/AlicesAdventuresInWonderland (click through pdf or epub)
https://www.adobe.com/be_en/active-use/pdf/Alice_in_Wonderland.pdf (Described as an all digital replica of the original. You can see the book's stitching and edges of the cover.)
https://librivox.org/alices-adventures-in-wonderland-by-lewis-carroll/ (When listening is reading...)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dq1T5c-_yaQ (read by John Gielgud)
http://www.storyjumper.com/book/index/14849392/Alice-in-Wonderland (This site lets you make your own illustrated and, conceivably, even narrated book. Child's drawings and text summary.

Saturday, April 15, 2017

MADNESS: a bipolar life by Marya Hornbacher

Author of WASTED: a memoir of anorexia and bulimia, Hornbacher, tells the rest of the story. A little precious, a bit self-indulgent, much as her life, there is good content here. However, I didn't feel the depression the way I felt the mania. Perhaps, unable to write during the lows affected the ability to convey them emotionally. Understandable. The mania was well represented, making for an engaging read of well-bred midwestern neurosis gone wrong.

Sort of like Orange is the New Black, I don't doubt the author's depth of experience, but there is some glamourizing of what must have been devastating consequences to self-destructive choices. I guess my main disappointmet is there doesn't seem like there was a growth in self-awareness other than learning to take the meds.

The links to mental health organizations was a nice addition at the end, as was the other research information. It's good that the subject is being explored. Silence continues to be one of the roadblocks to public acceptance.

Monday, April 03, 2017

LYING by Lauren Slater

"I think secretly each and every one of us longs to fall, and knows in a deep wise place in our brains that surrender is the means by which we gain, not lose, our lives. ... We want to go down, and it hurts to fight the force of gravity."

Slater describes her memoir by its title. She has chosen metaphor over history, fiction over fact, as the only way to arrive at a narrative that describes her experience with mental illness.

In the quote above, we could easily substitute "letting go" with falling or surrendering. And, what, after all, is madness but an ultimate release of the self from reality.

Best poems of modernism


created from full text of Modernism Best Poems site using wordart.com

Haiku English poetry


Friday, March 24, 2017

Reading and Insomnia

Reading to fall asleep requires a text like music, a lulling of prose, in order to float just above reality until slipping safely into another world.

Wednesday, March 22, 2017

Digital Humanities


Hypertext and the Role of the Reader and Writer (doctoral essay by unknown author)

Hypertext and the Role of the Reader and Writer
(editorialized content)

In this essay I will argue that hypertext challenges our notions regarding the relationship between reader and writer. Hypertext gives "permission" to readers to insert themselves into the meaning construction process and "write" a text in a way that is often different from what the author foresaw. Hypertext makes us conscious of the blurring of the reader/author role. Book technology seems to fix our notion of authorship and hypertext challenges us to rethink that role and the role of the reader. Historically, however, there have been other "challenges" to these roles, which is an important consideration when discussing the role hypertext plays in the act of reading and writing.

Ilana Snyder believes that hypertext is changing our notions of authorship. She notes that the absence of textual autonomy and centeredness disperses the author. But Snyder points out that the amount of control experienced by a reader is largely dependent on hardware and software. In Storyspace, for example, a hypertext writing program published by Eastgate Systems, links can be hidden in the text and the reader must either search for the links by randomly clicking on words that might be a link, or by executing a key stroke that highlights where the links are in the lexia. She points out that computers shape the way we think, encouraging some kinds of thinking and discouraging others. She uses the example of a blackboard where text is created with the assumption that it will be erased. Paper and pen writing encourages writers to attend to grammar and spelling and to use a more controlled type of thinking. Computers invite writers to think non-linearly and cooperatively. She points out that "we organize our writing space in the way we organize our thoughts, and in the way in which we think the world itself must be organized (69).

George Landow writes that hypertext blurs the boundaries between reader and writer and claims that, because of the nature of hypertext, the fact that the reader has to make choices and acts upon those choices by clicking on a word or image, the reader becomes "active." Perhaps it is important to point out here that although I consider Landow one of the key figures in hypertext theory, I have difficulty with his use of the word "active" here. All reading, all meaning construction is active. Reading is not a passive activity. Yet Landow sometimes uses passive and active in his explanations and defense of hypertext. For example, he points out in his first Convergence text ((1992) that hypertext "provides an infinitely re-centerable system whose provisional point of focus depends upon the reader, who becomes an active reader…" (11).

Perhaps a better word to explain the role of the reader in this re-centerable system is the word "deliberate." Hypertext reading requires the reader to make deliberate decisions about which path to take within a hypertext web. And as I write this, I know that there are instances when readers of more traditional texts like dictionaries and encyclopedias, not to mention magazines, make deliberate choices regarding where and what they will read. But for the time being, until I can come up with a better word, I will describe the hypertext reader as deliberate, as one who deliberately reads a text according to his or her own interests or organizing principles.

Landow frequently mentions narratologist Gerard Genette, and Genette's ideas are particularly relevant to a discussion of the reader/writer roles. Landow, citing Genette, maintains that hypertext is a means of escaping what Genette refers to as the idolatry or idealization of the author. Hypertext, because of its openness, its fuzzy borders that are so easily permeated, makes the author's role as diffused as the boundaries of the text itself. Landow also talks about Walter Ong's theory regarding the relationship between computer technology and orality. Ong argues that computers have brought with them a "second orality" that is very similar to the participatory sense of community and a focus on the present moment in oral cultures.

And, though Ong seems to go astray when he talks about computers and sequential processing, he (and Landow) make the interesting point that books and their authors cannot be challenged in any immediate sense. Hypertext readers, however, can challenge a text immediately, or as immediately as the reader can write a response and link that response to the author's text. This placement of text within a larger domain of text places the reader and the writer in a kind of dialogue that cannot happen as easily (if at all) in the world of paper and ink.

If hypertext is challenging the role of author and reader, it is not the first textual innovation to do so. Ilana Snyder (1996) reminds us that in manuscript days scribes often altered the work they were copying. This blurred, even then, the boundaries between author and reader. French literary critic Roland Barthes, in his interesting essay "The Death of the Author," (1993) points out that a piece of text is "not a line of words releasing a single 'theological' meaning (the message of the Author-God), but a multi-dimensional space in which a variety of writings, non of them original, blend and clash" (116).

Snyder also points out that oral texts had many of the features that theorists claim are inherent in hypertexts. Oral texts could be revised at will by the speaker who altered stories depending on the prompts from an audience. But book technology provided a new framing device for narrative and other forms.

Janet Murray (1997) points out that with electronic text the "author" is procedural, like a choreographer "who supplies the rhythms, the context, and the set of steps that will be performed" (153). The reader, or as she calls him or her, the "interactor", is a "navigator, protagonist, explorer, or builder, [who] makes use of [a] repertoire of possible steps and rhythms to improvise a particular dance among the many, many possible dances the author has enabled." (153)

In this sense, Murray reminds us that each time a reader enters a hypertext web, the reader creates a "new" text, written by the choices he or she makes as she travels through the docuverse. And Landow (1992, 1997) consistently reminds us that the text an interactor reads is not necessarily the text an author planned. All this seems much like the ancient storyteller who changes the text to fit the wishes of each audience.

The audience and the storyteller collaborate to create a narrative. Collaboration is a key element in hypertext reading and writing as well. Landow adds that a hypertext reader/writer "almost inevitably works collaboratively whenever creating documents in a multi-author hypertext system" (2.0, 110) Landow (1997) reminds us that print technology has imposed a more "passive" role on readers.

Landow believes that hypertext is the instantiation of Barthes' concepts of readerly and writerly text (Convergence,1992). Indeed, Landow borrows many of Barthes' terms when talking about hypertext-terms like lexia, meaning an individual writing space or block of text that can be accessed and has links to other lexias. Barthes envisions a readerly text as one in which networks are many and interact, without any one of them being able to surpass the rest.

Certainly a hypertext reader is more than just a consumer of the text. The hypertext reader seems more akin to the ancient audience of the storyteller--a collaborator. The hypertext reader is a deliberate force within the text itself, not divorced from the text, but a partner with both the author and the text.

I am reminded of an interesting National Geographic site on the world wide web that allows readers to "become" someone accused of witch craft in Salem, Massachusetts in the seventeenth century. The background of the narrative is black.The reader "feels the power" of the text.The National Geographic site and other hypertexts, bring an interesting question into the discussion--that of agency.

Murray believes that hypertext does not diminish the author's agency, but it may make the reader more conscious of his or her agency within the narrative or other discursive form. Murray emphasizes that readers ...can only act within the possibilities that have been established by the writing and the programming. They can build simulated cities, try out combat strategies, trace a unique path through a labyrinthine web, or even prevent a murder, but unless the imaginary world is nothing more than a costume trunk of empty avatars, all of the [reader's] possible performances will have been called into being by the originating author (152)

Louise Rosenblatt believes the reader brings a text to life. In order to bring that text to life the reader must transact with the text, the reader must write the text for herself or himself. And in the reader's mind the text sifts through all of the reader's previous experiences as the reader goes through the meaning-making process. In this sense the reader is always central to the text.

Espen Aarseth, however, makes a point that transactional theory cannot adequately explain what happens when a reader engages with hypertext, or ergotic literature, as he calls it (Cybertext, 1997). The hypertext reader "also performs in an extranoematic sense" (1). This happens through the semiotic sequence of physically clicking on a hypertext link which places the reader in a physical act of meaning construction.

Foucault (1977) argues for a loosening of the author's constraint over text, and hypertext seems to be one way in which this can happen. He writes: Although, since the eighteenth century, the author has played the role of the regulator of the fictive, a role quite characteristic of our era of industrial and bourgeois society, of individualism and private property, still, given the historical modifications that are taking place, it does not seem necessary that the author-function remain constant in form, complexity, and even in existence" (159-160).

Landow and the others frequently assert that hypertext is bringing about changes in the author/reader relationship. But that relationship was already being questioned by Barthes, Foucault, and Derrida who were talking about the decentered self and about the decentered or nomadic web of knowledge where knowledge can be accessed from an impermanent nomadic center (Landow 1992).

But there is a group of hypertext theorists who are, in their own way, trying to maintain the structure of a given piece of knowledge, a given piece of hypertext, not because they are necessarily alarmed by the postmodern condition and the increased agency of a reader, but because they see a disoriented reader. These are the cognitivists who approach the role of the hypertext reader and author from a different perspective. In order to understand the cognitivist approach to hypertext reading, it is important to first look at the reading theory that many of the cognitivists use as the foundation for their stance on the roles of readers and writers.
When discussing reading comprehension, many of the cognitivists use what is known as the Kintsch model of reading comprehension 1 2 3. This is a more linear process that only considers the cognitive processes in meaning construction. Certainly the cognitivists have brought some valuable ideas to reading theory. But in considering the role of the reader and writer, the cognitivists do not look at the social transactions involved in meaning construction.

The cognitivists tend to deal with the ways in which current readers make use of hypertext. The cognitivists are concerned about a reader's disorientation within a hypertext web, and indeed, that can be a concern, especially in a test preparation situation. But the writer of a hypertext goes into the task knowing the reader will not progress through the text in any given sequence or at least has the option of taking multiple possible paths. It may be that a hypertext writer will have to envision different readers who have different purposes.

John Slatin (1992) actually identifies three different types of hypertext readers: the browser, the user, and the co-author (158). The browser reads for no particular purpose other than to find something interesting with which to engage. The user is looking for specific information and uses the hypertext to find that information. The co-author collaborates deliberately with the hypertext, inserting his or her own lexias in response, or incorporating existing lexias into a new hypertext web or docuverse. It is impossible, actually, to predetermine whether a hypertext will serve the needs of the browser, the user, or the co-author, so a writer cannot always create a hypertext web with any particular audience in mind. And that is why the cognitivists have some important ideas in terms of hypertext reading, at least during a time when we may be experiencing a transition between two information technologies.

Where the cognitivists seem to have difficulty is in the fact that readers, when they get used to the new text spaces of hypertext, will develop new reading strategies. The cognitivists call for hierarchical overviews and more "ordered" progressions through hypertext webs seems much like the calls for order that were heard when the printing press began making an impact on how people thought about readers and writers.

But hypertext, whether it is literary or pragmatic, whether it is Stuart Moulthrop's novel or a new version of Excel, is here. We will adapt to hypertext with as much ease or as much difficulty as we adapt to a changing larger culture. Because essentially it is the culture that is changing. Hypertext is merely a symptom of that change.

Aarseth, Espen J. Cybertext: Perspectives on ergotic literature. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997.
Barthes, Roland. "The Death of the Author." Modern Litarary Theory: A Reader, 2nd edition. Ed. Rice and Waugh. London: Edward Arnold, 1993.
Birkerts, Sven. The Gutenberg Elegies: The Fate of Reading in the Elecronic Age. New York: Fawcett Columbine, 1994.
Bolter, David Jay. Writing space: The computer, hypertext, and the history of writing. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, 1991.
Charnay, Davida. "The Effect of Hypertext on Processes of Reading and Writing." Literacy and computers: The complications of teaching and learning with technology. Ed. Cynthia Selfe and Susan Hilligoss. New York: MLA, 1994.
Dee-Lucas, Diane. "Effects of Overview Structure on Study Strategies and Text Representations for Instructional Hypertext." Hypertext and Cognition. Ed. Jarmo J. Levonen Jean-Francois Rouet, Andrew Dillon, Rand J. Sprio. New York: Erlbaum, 1996. 73-107.
Foucault, Michel. "What Is An Author." Language, Counter-Memory, Practice: Selected Essays and Interviews by Michel Foucault. Ed. Donald F. Bouchard. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1977.
Landow, George P. Hypertext 2.0: The convergence of contemporary critical theory and technology. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997.
Landow, George P. Hypertext: The convergence of contemporary critical theory and technology. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992.
Murray, Janet H. Hamlet on the Holodeck: The Future of Narrative in Cyberspace. New York: The Free Press, 1997.
Slatin, John. "Reading Hypertext: Order and Coherence in a New Medium." Hypermedia and Literary Studies. Ed. Paul Delaney and George P. Landow. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1992. 153-169.
Snyder, Ilana. Hypertext: The electronic labyrinth. New York: New York University Press, 1996.